Chapter 9 (The Nervous System) Review Sheet

 

Name_________________________________________________________ Date________ Period____

 

 

1.  What part of a neuron conducts impulses away from the neuron cell body? __________________                                                         

     What part of a neuron conducts impulses toward the neuron cell body? _____________________

 

2.  A ______________   __________________  may be described as a: nerve impulse; an “explosion”

     of electrical activity”; what happens when neurons communicate with each other.

 

3.  What is the threshold stimulus?

 

4.  What are ganglia?

 

5.  List the 4 types of neuroglial cells.   Also, which neuroglial cell is star shaped?

 

 

6.  Why is cerebrospinal fluid important to the brain and the spinal cord?

 

7.  What is the importance of the blood-brain barrier?

 

8.  Local anesthetics keep patients from feeling pain by causing the neuron cell membrane to become

     _____________________ to ions.

 

9.  Name three things that nerve impulse transmission is dependent on:

 

 

10.  Define nerve:

 

11.  List the 4 major portions of the brain:

 

 

12.  Name one common neurotransmitter:

 

13.  What is the substance that insulates the axon and increases nerve impulse transmission?

 

14.  Describe the basic steps that occur when a neuron is stimulated:

 

 

15.  Explain the difference between depolarization and repolarization:

 

 

16.  Describe the basic functions of the autonomic nervous system:

 

 

17.  Name the three types of neurons (based on functional differences) found in our body.

 

 

18.  Name and describe the three types of nerves found in our body.

19.  Explain the difference between the gyri and sulci of the brain.  What does gyri and sulci accomplish?

 

 

 

20.  What is multiple sclerosis?

 

 

 

21.  Which cerebral hemisphere is usually more dominant?

 

 

 

22.  What is the function of the cerebellum?

 

 

 

23.  What is the function of the cerebrum?

 

 

 

24.  What is the function of the brainstem?

 

 

 

25.  Describe the basic functions of each of these lobes of the cerebrum: 

 

Occipital                                   Frontal                                     Parietal             Temporal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26.  What do the “Nodes of Ranvier” accomplish?

 

 

 

27.  Explain the difference between these terms:  Quadraplegia, Hemiplegia, Paraplegia.

 

 

 

28.  What is the function of the corpora quadragemina?

 

 

 

29.  What is a cordotomy?

 

 

Match the following:

 

1.       Axon        _____             a.  Insulates the axon.

2.       Dendrite  _____             b.  Receives the nerve impulse.

3.       Depolarization _____    c.  Sends the nerve impulse to the next neuron or effector.

4.       Repolarization _____    d.  The process of positive ions moving across the neuron membrane   

                                                  by diffusion, and generating an action potential. 

5.       Myelin _____                 e.  The process of ions moving across the neuron membrane by active

                                                  transport and thereby restoring the electrical potential of the

                                                  neuron.

 

 

6.       Dura mater ____            a.  Thickest, most outer membrane layer.

7.       Pia mater   ____             b.  Cushions, provides nutrients, and removes waste.

8.       Arachnoid ____              c.  Innermost membrane layer that adheres to the brain or spinal cord.

9.       CSF          ____               d.  Space within the brain where cerebrospinal fluid circulates.

10.   Ventricles ____              e.  Middle, spider web-like membrane layer.

 

 

11.  Neurilemmal sheath   _____    a.  Surrounds the myelin sheath.

12.  Synaptic vesicles _____           b.  Produces cerebrospinal fluid.

13.  Choroid plexus   _____             c.  A deep bridge of nerve fibers that connects the cerebral

                                                                 hemispheres.

14.  Corpus callosum ____              d.  Release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine.

15.  Brain stem _____                      e.  Consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.

 

                         

16.  Cerebrum  _____                       a.  Serves as the center for spinal reflexes.

17. Cerebellum _____                     b.  Provides higher mental functions, including memory and

                                                            reasoning. 

18. Medulla oblongata _____          c.  Controls vital functions such as respiration and heart rate.

19.  Diencephalon _____                 d.  Regulates posture, maintains balance, and coordinates

                                                            complex skeletal muscle movements.

20. Spinal cord _____                      e.  Central relay station for incoming sensory impulses, and

                                                             maintains homeostasis.

 

 

21.  Superior colliculi _____          a.  Hormone that regulates circadian rhythms. 

22.  Inferior collicui _____             b.  Nervous tissue composed of tightly-packed neuron cell

                                                            bodies.

23. Gray matter ______                   c.  Contains axons coated with a thick layer of myelin.

24. White matter ______                 d.  Region of the brain that serves in auditory processing.

25.  Melatonin  ______                    e.  Region of the brain that serves in visual processing.

 

 

 

 

Match the following events:

 

1.  ______ More Na+ outside cell. More K+ inside cell.                                               A. Depolarization

 

2.  ______ Na+ ion gates open and Na+ rush into cell.                                     B. Hyperpolarization

 

3.  ______ K+ gates open & Na+ gates close; K+ rush out of cell.                               C. Refractory Period

 

4.  ______ More K+ moved out of cell than necessary to reestablish                 D. Repolarization

                    charge across membrane.

 

5.  ______ Na+ pumped out of cell & K+ pumped into cell.                                         E. Resting potential

 

Label the following diagrams:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Match the following functions:

 

 

 

1.  ______  Regulates balance, movement & coordination.

 

2.  ______  It controls vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, etc.

 

3.  ______  Center of vision and reading ability; conscious seeing.

 

4.  ______  Center of intellectual processes; reasoning, emotions;

                     translation of thought patterns into speech.

 

5.  ______  This region is involved in the interpretation of auditory sensations.  Involved with olfaction,

                     language, and emotional behavior.

 

 

 

Match the structure/description with the correct letter from the diagram below:

 

1.  ______  Neuron cell bodies

 

2.  ______  Gyri

 

3.  ______  Myelinated axons

 

4.  ______  Sulcus